A motor is a device that transforms electrical power into applied mechanical energy. This electric device works when an interaction of electric current is connected to a magnetic field via a wound wire to generate force that is used as torque by the motor shaft.
The motor contains a rotor consisting of a chain of magnets and a stator that takes the shape of an iron ring. The work of this device in an electric vehicle is to convert stored electric power to mechanical power.Three categories of motors used in plugin vehicles include; induction motors, internal permanent magnets, motors, and switched reluctance motors are discussed below;
This motor works on the parameters of electromagnetic induction between the rotor and the stator. The magnetic whirl induces an electrical current in the rotor, which produces torque. It’s mainly categorized into two based on its rotor’s makeup: the slip ring induction motor and the squirrel cage induction motor.
The squirrel cage induction motor is built by joining copper bars at both ends using a conductive ring, making a closed-looped circuit. The rotor has no electrical connection.
Therefore, its stator’s varying magnetic flux actuates the current that generates its magnetic field. This field interacts with the stator’s revolving magnetism and tries to eliminate it by spinning it in the same direction.
Internal permanent magnet motors
Electric motors maintain a high-power density and efficiency in their operating ranges. Themotor’s magnet is made from rare earth minerals, making it very expensive to construct and purchase, and its supply is limited. Even with such disadvantages, this type of motor is recommended for machine tools and traction motors.
Its stator has copper coils that power in succession to produce a magnetic field. This force creates a torque that turns the rotor which rotates the shaft. The torque source is brought about by the interaction of the stator’s flux and the poles of the motor’s magnets.
Its rotors consist of piles of metal laminations stamped with spaces that form a parallel cavity to the motor’s axis. These spaces are fitted with magnets in perfect alignment, which retains the magnets in place.
Switched reluctance motors
This type of motor is cheaper to produce than other types. It runs on a reluctance torque, and the electric energy is distributed to windings in its stator instead of the rotor. When electrical power is transmitted to the stator, the rotor’s magnetism produces a force that aligns the rotor pole to the nearest stator pole.
To maintain rotation, the windings of the successive stator poles are switched on in a sequence by an electronic control mechanismso that the magnetic flux of the stator “guides” the rotor pole.
Switched reluctance motors produce inconvenient vibrations and noise and pose a significant challenge. They are less efficient and require complex sensors and motor controllers to increase efficiency in electric cars.
Benefits ofelectric-powered motors in hybrid vehicles
- Their lifespan is longer since they have moving parts.
- They are efficient and easy to use because of their automatic features.
- They are eco-friendly since they do not produce greenhouse gases.
- They are cheap to manufacture compared to fossil-powered engines.
Electric-powered motors have revolutionized the production of vehicles, making them better, more efficient, and cheap to produce. And using these motors has made the world a better place since it has and will significantly reduce carbon emissions. Check also battery charger.